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Alawite populations in Syria
Alawite populations in Syria

Distribution of minority and majority Alawite populations in Syria

Civil war casualties
Civil war casualties

This chart shows the death toll by week during the civil conflict in Syria. Source of data: Syrian National Council.

Mamluk sultanate
Mamluk sultanate

The Mamluks, whose territory is shown here circa 1279, subjected the Alawites to major repression after a religious scholar declared their belief system heretical.

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

Alawites resisted continuous Ottoman attempts to tax their villages and to convert them to Sunni Islam. 

Ottoman Syria
Ottoman Syria

Map of Ottoman Syria in 1851

Support for Syrian regime by nation
Support for Syrian regime by nation

Countries in green support the rebels; in blue support the Assad regime; in yellow have groups supporting both sides of the civil war. Syria is in red. 

Syria's religions
Syria's religions

Syria's ethno-religious composition in 1976. Source: Central Intelligence Agency

Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War

The military situation in Syria in early September 2013. The size of each circle corresponds to the population of the city. Green: controlled by pro-Assad forces; brown: controlled by anti-Assad forces; mustard: controlled by Kurdish forces; blue: fighting is ongoing and control is unclear. 

The French Mandate
The French Mandate

By promoting separate identities and creating autonomous zones in Syria along the lines of ethnic and sectarian differences, the French mandate aimed to maximize French control and influence in Syria.