In 2019, the Amazon forest burst into flames, spreading smoke and ash across a wide area and turning the world's attention back to this vital global resource. But right-wing Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro announced that he would continue his plans to open up the forest for more logging, mining, and agriculture. This month, historian Stanley Blake sketches the long struggle over the Amazon between indigenous peoples and those Brazilians who see it as the key to Brazil's economic future.

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