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"North Pole 36" personnel pose in front of a nuclear-powered icebreaking ship.
"North Pole 36" personnel pose in front of a nuclear-powered icebreaking ship.
2001 Belorussian stamp set commemorating 110 years since the birth of Otto Shmidt. The stamps depict his Arctic triumphs: Northern Sea Route, Cheliuskin rescue, North Pole-1, Arctic flight.
2001 Belorussian stamp set commemorating 110 years since the birth of Otto Shmidt. The stamps depict his Arctic triumphs: Northern Sea Route, Cheliuskin rescue, North Pole-1, Arctic flight.
Arctic ice melting in September 2009
Arctic ice melting in September 2009

Source: photo by Patrick Kelley

At a press conference, Artur Chilingarov holds a photo of the Russian flag his exploration team planted underwater at the North Pole.
At a press conference, Artur Chilingarov holds a photo of the Russian flag his exploration team planted underwater at the North Pole.
Canadian HMCS Goose Bay moored at the future site of the Nanisivik Naval Facility, during Operation Nanook, in August 2010
Canadian HMCS Goose Bay moored at the future site of the Nanisivik Naval Facility, during Operation Nanook, in August 2010
Envelope commemorating 50 years since the historic 1937 flight of M. M. Gromov from Moscow to San Jacinto over the North Pole
Envelope commemorating 50 years since the historic 1937 flight of M. M. Gromov from Moscow to San Jacinto over the North Pole
Famed Russian explorer Otto Shmidt
Famed Russian explorer Otto Shmidt
Famed Russian polar explorer Artur Chilingarov fires a pistol into the air to celebrate establishment of a new research station in 2003.
Famed Russian polar explorer Artur Chilingarov fires a pistol into the air to celebrate establishment of a new research station in 2003.
Front view of the MIR submersible as it is hoisted into the water
Front view of the MIR submersible as it is hoisted into the water

Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

In 1932, the icebreaking ship "Sibiryakov" proved the single-season navigability of the Northern Sea Route.
In 1932, the icebreaking ship "Sibiryakov" proved the single-season navigability of the Northern Sea Route.
Nuclear icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy" ("50 Years of Victory") escorting the "Beluga Fraternity" and "Beluga Foresight" through the Northern Sea Route in 2009
Nuclear icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy" ("50 Years of Victory") escorting the "Beluga Fraternity" and "Beluga Foresight" through the Northern Sea Route in 2009
Nuclear icebreaker "Yamal" on its way to the North Pole, carrying 100 tourists, in 2001
Nuclear icebreaker "Yamal" on its way to the North Pole, carrying 100 tourists, in 2001
Participants of the North Pole-1 expedition. Otto Shmidt is in the middle, with one of the airplanes that they landed at the North Pole.
Participants of the North Pole-1 expedition. Otto Shmidt is in the middle, with one of the airplanes that they landed at the North Pole.
Russia commemorated Arctic explorer Otto Shmidt on this postage stamp.
Russia commemorated Arctic explorer Otto Shmidt on this postage stamp.
Russian coin commemorating the 1937 North Pole-1 research station
Russian coin commemorating the 1937 North Pole-1 research station
Russian explorers plant a flag in the polar ice at "North Pole-32" research station in 2003.
Russian explorers plant a flag in the polar ice at "North Pole-32" research station in 2003.
Russian nuclear-powered icebreaker "Yamal"
Russian nuclear-powered icebreaker "Yamal"

Source: National Science Foundation

Russian President Vladimir Putin aboard an exploration vessel on the Barents Sea in 2005
Russian President Vladimir Putin aboard an exploration vessel on the Barents Sea in 2005
Station Commander of North Pole-1, Ivan Papanin
Station Commander of North Pole-1, Ivan Papanin
Statue in Nizhnii Novgorod celebrating the Arctic pilot V. P. Chkalov. The pedestal displays the route of his historic 1937 flight from Moscow to Vancouver, WA via the North Pole.
Statue in Nizhnii Novgorod celebrating the Arctic pilot V. P. Chkalov. The pedestal displays the route of his historic 1937 flight from Moscow to Vancouver, WA via the North Pole.
Submersible scientific research vessel "MIR"
Submersible scientific research vessel "MIR"
The "Akademik Fyodorov," a Russian scientific diesel-electric research vessel, the flagship of the Russian polar research fleet
The "Akademik Fyodorov," a Russian scientific diesel-electric research vessel, the flagship of the Russian polar research fleet
The aerial rescue of the "Cheliuskin" research team is a proud Russian memory.
The aerial rescue of the "Cheliuskin" research team is a proud Russian memory.
The Cheliuskin sinking in 1934, crushed by the Arctic ice
The Cheliuskin sinking in 1934, crushed by the Arctic ice
The Russian flag is lowered in August 2009 at the conclusion of work at the "North Pole 36" research station.
The Russian flag is lowered in August 2009 at the conclusion of work at the "North Pole 36" research station.
Three polar bears approach the starboard bow of the submarine "USS Honolulu" while surfaced 280 miles from the North Pole in 2003
Three polar bears approach the starboard bow of the submarine "USS Honolulu" while surfaced 280 miles from the North Pole in 2003

Source: photo by Alphonso Braggs, U.S. Navy