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Abdul Ghaffar Khan with Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel (l-r)
Abdul Ghaffar Khan with Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel (l-r)

Abdul Ghaffar Khan, here on the left in 1946, eventually led the Muslim League in West Pakistan, which created its own paramilitary force in the mid-1950s to defy President Iskander Mirza's government. Khan was a supporter of Mahatma Gandhi, an opponent of Partition, and an advocate of democracy.

Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto

Benazir Bhutto meeting with intellectuals in Pakistan in 1996. She rallied the PPP and won election as prime minister in 1988. After another period of exile, she campaigned for office after Musharraf transformed himself into a civilian politician. She was assassinated in 2007.

Bengali Liberation Fighters
Bengali Liberation Fighters

Fighters in the Bengali liberation forces during the war between East and West Pakistan in 1971

General Muhammad Yahya Khan
General Muhammad Yahya Khan

General Muhammad Yahya Khan removed Ayub from power in 1969, abrogated the Constitution of 1962, banned all political parties, and declared martial law.

General Pervez Musharraf
General Pervez Musharraf

General Pervez Musharraf speaks at the Pakistan Air Force base in Chaklala Pakistan ca. 2005. He led a coup against Nawaz Sharif's second term as prime minister.

General Zia-ul-haq in Oval Office
General Zia-ul-haq in Oval Office

General Zia-ul-haq, as pictured here in the Oval Office with U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1982, staged a coup and had Bhutto executed in 1979. He instituted Islamization, increased his power as president, and enforced martial law until 1985.

Indian Soldiers in 1947 War
Indian Soldiers in 1947 War

Indian soldiers fighting in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

Indian Tank in 1971
Indian Tank in 1971

Indian tank advancing upon Dhaka during the 1971 war

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi, the fourth prime minister of India, declared that India could not cope with the millions of refugees crossing the border from East Pakistan / Bangladesh in 1971.

Iskander Mirza
Iskander Mirza

Iskander Mirza, shown here with the Shah of Iran in 1955, became Pakistan's first president in 1956. He quickly imposed "president's rule" on East Pakistan.

Kashmir
Kashmir

The territory of the Himalayan Kashmir region remains hotly disputed among Pakistan, India, and China.

Liaquat Ali Khan with Harry S. Truman
Liaquat Ali Khan with Harry S. Truman

Liaquat Ali Khan meets with U.S. President Harry S. Truman in 1950. Khan was named prime minister of Pakistan in 1947 and worked to craft a constitution for the new nation.

Mohandas K. Gandhi spinning yarn, late 1920s
Mohandas K. Gandhi spinning yarn, late 1920s

Mohandas K. Gandhi spinning yarn, late 1920s. He led the Indian National Congress as India seized independence from Great Britain.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah speech, 1943
Muhammad Ali Jinnah speech, 1943

In this photo, Jinnah addresses the delegates to the Muslim Political Convention held in New Delhi in 1943. He was leader of the Muslim League and presented his "Two Nations Theory," which argued that while they may live side by side, the Hindus and Muslims of South Asia constituted two separate nations.

Nawaz Sharif with Army Officials, 1992
Nawaz Sharif with Army Officials, 1992

This image, from 1992, shows Nawaz Sharif (center) when he was prime minister. A businessman turned politician, he was elected prime minister of Pakistan for the third time on June 5, 2013. It was the first time in Pakistan's turbulent political history that one democratically elected government, having served out its term, was replaced by another democratically elected government formed by a different political party.

Partition Refugees
Partition Refugees

During the Partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, millions of refugees moved to one country or the other, like this Muslim family walking to Pakistan carrying an elderly woman.

President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari, 2009
President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari, 2009

President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari, President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, and President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai in 2009 (left to right)

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Mujib)
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Mujib)

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Mujib), the first and fourth president of Bangladesh

Tomb of Khawaja Nazimudden
Tomb of Khawaja Nazimudden

This image shows the tomb of Khawaja Nazimudden who became Pakistan's prime minister after the previous minister was assassinated in 1951. He established martial law, but was soon removed from power as Chaudhri Muhammad became prime minister.

Trains Full of Partition Refugees
Trains Full of Partition Refugees

Trains packed with refugees during the India-Pakistan Partition 1947

U-2 Spy Plane
U-2 Spy Plane

U-2 spy planes were used by the U.S. at the Peshawar Air Station in Pakistan to fly reconnaissance missions into the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto with U.S. President Richard Nixon, 1973
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto with U.S. President Richard Nixon, 1973

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto meets with U.S. President Richard Nixon in 1973 in the Oval Office. He had created the socialist Pakistan People's Party (PPP) in 1967.