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Black Lives Matter Medina
Black Lives Matter Medina

Black Lives Matter demonstration against white supremacy in Medina, OH, 2020. Photo courtesy of Tina Forhan.

Carla Hale
Carla Hale

Carla Hale delivering a statement confirming her firing from Bishop Watterson High School during a press conference in Columbus, Ohio in 2013. Hale was fired from Bishop Watterson H.S. for being in a gay relationship. Although many cities like Columbus have nondiscrimination ordinances, they do not always apply to religious organizations. AP Photo/ Columbus Dispatch, Adam Cairns. Used with permission.

Charlie Luker
Charlie Luker

Cincinnati Mayor Charlie Luker calls on voters to repeal a 1993 city charter amendment that made Cincinnati the only U.S. city to ban enactment or enforcement of laws based on sexual orientation. By the early 2000s, many mayors believed that LGBTQ protections helped economic development. AP Photo, Al Behrman. Used with permission.

Cincinnati City Hall
Cincinnati City Hall
Cleveland Pride
Cleveland Pride
Crazy Ladies Bookstore
Crazy Ladies Bookstore

The Crazy Ladies Bookstore, a lesbian-owned business in Cincinnati's Northside neighborhood in the 1990s. Photo courtesy of Ohio Lesbian Archives.

Fountain Square Celebrations
Fountain Square Celebrations

Nevi Kotzevi, center left, and Maggie Best-Miller, center right, hold bouquets as they are married by Mayor John Cranley before a throng of supporters and journalists at Fountain Square in Cincinnati in 2015 after the Supreme Court declared that same-sex couples have a right to marry anywhere in the United States. AP Photo, John Minchillo. Used with permission. 

Hamilton Ave
Hamilton Ave

Storefronts on Hamilton Avenue in Cincinnati's Northside neighborhood in the 2000s. In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, some urban planners saw gay-friendly districts like this one as engines of economic development. Photo by Jerome Strauss.

Highland Square
Highland Square
Map of Religious Freedom Restoration Acts
Map of Religious Freedom Restoration Acts
Mattachine Review
Mattachine Review
Medina BLM
Medina BLM

A Black Lives Matter rally in Medina in 2020. Recently, some white suburbanites in the U.S. have tried to reckon with the history of exclusion in their communities. Photo courtesy of Tina Forhan.

Medina Meeting
Medina Meeting

Crowd gathers to witness the passage of new laws banning discrimination based on a person's sexual orientation or gender identity in Medina, OH, 2019. Photo courtsey of OutSupport.

Medina Square
Medina Square
Ohio City
Ohio City
Ohio City Pride Flag
Ohio City Pride Flag
Ohio History Connection
Ohio History Connection
Parma Shopping Center
Parma Shopping Center

Winkelman's Department Store in the Parmatown Shopping Center in Parma, OH, 1960. Photo courtesy of Special Collections, Cleveland State University Library.

Procter & Gamble Headquarters
Procter & Gamble Headquarters
Rhonda Riveira
Rhonda Riveira

A speaker supports a bill for a homosexual rights ordinance in Columbus, Ohio in 1984. Columbus Citizen Journal Collection. Scripps-Howard newspapers/ Grandview Heights Public Library/ Photohio.org

Richard Florida
Richard Florida

Best-selling author and urban planner Richard Florida visits an art and design studio in Dayton, OH in 2008. Photo courtesy of Southwestern Ohio Council for Higher Education.

Summit County Gay Coalition
Summit County Gay Coalition

Summit County Gay Coalition rally in Barberton, OH, a suburb of Akron. During the 1970s and 1980s, many suburban LGBTQ people in the U.S. fought many forms of discrimination, including issues related to parenting. Photo courtesy of Akron Beacon Journal- USA Today Network.

Supporters in Medina
Supporters in Medina

High school students share letters of support for LGBTQ protections in Medina, 2019. Photo courtesy of OutSupport.

The Fez Bar
The Fez Bar

The Fez bar in downtown Akron, OH, 1971. The police frequently raided the bar because they believed that the clientele was bad for other businesses. Photo courtesy of Akron Beacon Journal- USA Today Network.

Thurman Magazine Display
Thurman Magazine Display

Gil Thurman of Dayton vice squad poses with magazines in 1967. During the 1950s and 1960s, most cities in the U.S. had police units dedicated to closing adult bookstores and gay bars. Courtesy of Wright State University Libraries' Special Collections & Archives.

TransFamily Flyer
TransFamily Flyer

Pride Flyer from TransFamily in 1997. Image courtesy of The Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, OH.